Fathers and Sons Metaphors

A metaphor is an expression that compares two unlike objects but with similar characteristics. Used in literature to spice up the language and to create a clear picture of a person or an event. In Ivan Turgenev’s novel Fathers and Sons, metaphors have been used to depict the current political and social environment in Russia. Some of the metaphors that stand out in the book are:


The character Fenichka has been used metaphorically to denote the simplicity of peasants in Russia. Fenichka is a servant to her master Nikolai. She is comfortable with the life her master has given her. She does not question or seek to improve her life. Fenichka is not affected by the changes happening in her life. She retains her character till the end of the book. The peasants in Russia were not affected by the revolution of philosophies. They retained their simple way of thinking.


Pavel is always at loggerheads with Bazarov. He does not agree with nihilism. Pavel has a fixed way of thinking in matters society. He believes that the way society works should not be challenged and does not understand the young men. Nikolai is also metaphorically used to portray traditionalism. He delays his marriage to Fenichka for fear of his brother’s disapproval.


The graduation of Arkady and Bazarov from the University of Petersburg symbolizes civilization. The two young man have set themselves free from the backward way of life through education. Bazarov is free to

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